Dedicated to the Community of the Penitents of Mary-Magdalene, which represent resistance to Protestantism, it housed the first Protestant synod of Strasbourg presided over by four representatives of the magistrate in June 1533.
The synod adopted sixteen articles expressing the faith of the local Protestants. It established the assessment of the clergy. It also engaged in a debate with dissidents opposed to some of their doctrinal decisions, to the discipline and to the hold influence of the civil authorities on the Church. The outcome of these debates was the first ecclesiastical Law of Strasbourg adopted in 1534.
The church burnt down in 1904. But the Medieval choir was preserved, a new building took the place of the former nave.