In the 16th century : alterations and new buildings
As the Reformation became a significant force in France, the Reformed Churches needed larger places of worship than the private homes where they used to meet.
The Protestants first moved into public places, abbeys or convents, Catholic churches, and set about modifying them to meet their spiritual ideas :
- No more worshipping of images, statues of saints, of holy images, etc.
- New arrangement of the interiors : no more altars and the re-centring of the building around the pulpit and the Holy Communion table.
some examples :
- in Montauban, the church of Saint-Jacques (St James),
- in Nîmes, the Augustinian and Observantinian convents, the churches of Sainte-Eugénie and Saint-Etienne-de-Capduel ,
- in Agen, the church of Saint-Fiary and the Jacobin convent,
- in La Rochelle, the churches of Saint-Barthélémy and Sainte-Marguerite, the refectory of the Augustinian convent, and the former Real Tennis court,
- in Gap, the chapel of Sainte-Colombe,
- in Montpellier, the church of Notre-Dame,
- in Caen and Lyon, several churches.
The Reformed Church then started building new buildings, community financed despite the poverty following the Wars of Religion. The buildings were called Temples referring to the temples in Jerusalem and to Solomon’s temple.
Among the most noteworthy were :
- community Temples, such as in Lyon, Rouen, Charenton,
- baronial chapels such as Chamerolles,
- existing buildings modified to be used as Temples, such as in Poët-Laval.
In the 17th century
Alsace was quite different because it only became French after the traité de Westphalie (Treaty of Westphalia) (1648), so the Edict of Nantes was never implemented there. Strasbourg only became French in 1681 ; its cathedral was used for Protestant worship for 150 years. Temples in Alsace often served alternately for Catholic and Protestant worship, or for “shared worship”. It should be mentioned that Lutheran worship is less strict than Calvinist worship as the former tolerates pictures of religious scenes within the building and also keeps the decorations in former Catholic churches :
Some new 17th century buildings can be found in Alsace or in the Montbéliard region (Saint Martin Temple), but there are almost none in other regions of France after the first few years of the century.
After the death of Henri IV in 1610, the Edict of Nantes was challenged and throughout the century Temples built after 1598 were destroyed, culminating in 1685 with the Revocation. Temples were then destroyed all over France.
The only remaining ones are in Vialas, Collet de Dèze, Pontaix and Poët Laval.
In the 18th century, secret meetings
Between 1685 and 1787 there was no new construction, but secret places of worship existed.
The refractory Protestants and false converts met in remote secret “assemblies” : the period was called the Désert (Desert) and there were often tragic events in the Cévennes, Languedoc, Poitou, Charentes and Normandy regions.
Towards the end of the 18th century, Louis the XIV’s Edict of Tolerance in 1787 allowed the Protestants to meet, and latterly some buildings were erected.
Temples at the end of the century :
In Orthez (Pyrénnées Atlantiques), a church of the Desert was started as early as 1757, and the Protestant community bought land in 1789 to build a “primitive barn” for use as a Temple, inaugurated on 25 November, 1790. Early in the 19th century the façade was adorned with an arched peristyle. In 1821 Louis XVIII was to give a gate bearing his monogramme.
In Monneaux (Aisne), a Temple was built in 1792, but it was unfortunately destroyed during the First World War. It was later rebuilt thanks to the American Episcopalian Church.
Jean Guimard, the son of a new convert died in London in 1782, and bequeathed money for the construction of a Temple. Everything was agreed in 1792 and the Temple inaugurated in 1797.
The French Revolution that nationalised clergy property, and the Concordat of 1801 with its incorporating Acts of 1802, gave new life to Protestantism, and encouraged the use of existing buildings or new constructions.
In the 19th century
The state supported the Protestants to rebuild Temples destroyed after the Revocation or to use former worship buildings, such as deconsecrated abbeys, convents, churches.
Buildings reused as Temples
Among buildings reused as Temples, one can mention :
- Valence (Drôme), the former abbey of Saint-Ruf ,
- Nîmes ( Gard) the former chapel of the Ursuline convent (Small Temple) and the former chapel of the Dominican Convent (Large Temple),
- Angers (Maine-et-Loire), the former Chapel of Saint Eloi ,
- Lyon, the former Masonic lodge called “Temple du Change”
- Montauban (Tarn et Garonne), the former Carmelite Chapel,
- Bordeaux, the former chapel of the Annonciade Convent called the Hâ Temple,
The former Billettes, Oratoire and Penthemont (or Pentemont) convents, and the church of the Visitation Sainte-Marie.
New construction during the neo-classic period from 1802 to 1840
The neo-classis style was already used in Catholic architecture of the 18th century, (the churches of Sainte Geneviève and Saint Philippe du Roule, or the Panthéon) and was a favourite during the Republique, the Empire or the Restoration eras not only for official public buildings but also in Protestant buildings ;
Many examples of this Greco-Roman type of architecture exist, such as circular or rectangular Temples fronted with a columnar portico :
- Anduze (Gard) 1823
- Lasalle (Gard)1829
- Quissac (Gard) 1833
- Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) 1804
- Orléans (Loiret) 1803-1839
- Marennes (Charente-Maritime) 1822
- Rochefort (Charente-Maritime) 1823
- Bordeaux (Gironde) Temple des Chartrons – 1832
- Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (Haute-Loire) 1826
- Vauvert (Gard) 1825
The neo-medieval period
The medieval style, Neo-gothic or neo-roman, was prominent from 1830 until about 1890.
Here are a few examples :
- Munster (Haut-Rhin) 1874
- Sancerre (Cher) 1894
- Nantes (Loire-Atlantique) 1830
- Saint-Maixent (Deux-Sèvres) 1876
- Paris, Temple du Saint-Esprit, rue Roquépine, built by Baltard, as the church of Saint-Augustine.
One of the most interesting Temples is the Etoile Temple in Paris. It was built at the request of Pastor Eugène Bersier according to the plans of the Swedish architect Hansen.
Some buildings show unusual features, for instance in Walincourt a Temple was built in 1822 using red brick specific to the North. In 1864, in Creusot (Saône et Loire), Mrs Eugène Schneider, the master blacksmith’s wife, allowed skilled protestant workers from Switzerland and Germany to use the former glass furnace built in 1782, to make crystal for Marie-Antoinette .
The multiform period from 1880 to 1920
The era which could also be termed ‘picturesque’ tried to stir up creativity but with no success. Much more exterior ornamentation was used ; they tried a regional style, such as a chalet -Temple, and shapes and steeples or bell towers became more sophisticated.
Unfortunately the Art Nouveau style did not influence protestant architecture.
The only original example of that period is the Foyer de l’Âme buit in Paris in 1906 at the request of Reverend Charles Wagner. The architecture mimicked the Grands Magasins -Galeries Lafayette, Printemps – with coloured glass panels, galleries with small columns, arranged on different levels, so that it no longer looked like a ‘church’ while still maintaining the solemnity. But the example was not copied.
The 20th century
New materials, including concrete, brought a new architectural aesthetic along with changes in the liturgy. Actually the style of religious architecture tried to mimic that of civilian architecture, but was often ungainly and unadventurous.
Other interesting 20th century architectural creations include :
- Temple in Marseilles (1954)
- Ecumenical church-Temple in Port-Grimaud (1969) with a stained-glass window by Vasarely,
- Houseboat-Temple in Chelles, Bonne-Nouvelle(1933)
- Ecumenical Centre in Jacou (Hérault).