England received two waves of immigration, as Geneva did.
|First wave : creation of many French Churches|
The first wave was characterised by the number of scholars who united in speaking Latin. Moreover the Wassy massacre (1562) caused a flow of Flemish and French immigration.
King Edward VI, who reigned from 1547 to 1553, was very much in favour of the Reformation which he promoted in his country.
After the reign of the Catholic princess, Mary Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I, who reigned from 1558 to 1603, sheltered all the Protestants fleeing away from persecutions, and pledged to protect them.
The refugees settled in communities close to the French Churches they had founded. These French-speaking communities were attested as early as the 16th century. The first was in Canterbury in 1561, where a Huguenot chapel still exists under the cathedral, then there were some in London, Norwich and Southampton.
An estimated 5,000 to 10,000 people constituted the community of the French Church in London, from 1590 to 1630.
The communities prepared to receive the second wave of refugees around 1685. Indeed the Huguenot communities cared for the massive number of new immigrants.
Help was organised by the Churches who founded the Charity house, called "The Soup", and a French hospital "Providence" in 1718.
Most refugees came from Normandy (25%) and Poitou (37%).
As in all other Refuge countries, the Huguenot contribution to industry and trade was paramount.
Huguenot tradesmen, manufacturers, craftsmen had a strong impact on the English industry - 100,000 French makers and workers fled to England after the Revocation. Among all the industries brought over by the refugees, the silk and paper industries were the most successful.
In the arts too, architects, painters and engravers also contributed to beautifying royal palaces and gardens.
|Royal politics towards the Huguenots|
Charles II was forced by the public opinion to restrict a law awarding privileges to the refugees coming to England (1681).
James II the successor of Charles II asserted himself as a Catholic thus offending the people. Some refugees then settled in Ireland.
William III of Orange (1689-1702) king of England defended the Protestant faith and assured the Refuge French people of his protection. His success in the conflict with James II was partly due the many officers and three French regiments who joined the troops that landed in England in 1688, thus ensuring the Glorious Revolution.
As early as 1709, under Queen Anne, the right of residence was awarded to all refugees established in the kingdom.
|Refuge and international politics|
The Refuge probably played a part in the rivalry between France and England at the end of the 17th century. William III of Orange, who had come into power thanks to the 1688 Glorious Revolution, was the first contender against Catholic powers such as France and Spain. Contrary to the absolute power of Louis XIV, the English crown presented a parliamentary monarchy.